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**Kiran Rani Panwar**

Research Scholar,

Department of Psychology,

C.C.S. University, Meerut, UP, India

Introduction

The word ‘Stress’ was coined by an Endocrinologist Dr. Hans Selye(1936). According to him stress had four basic sequences namely, Good Stress as Eustress; Bad Stress as Distress; Overstress as Hyperstress and Understress as Hypostress. Psychological stress is known as Occupational stress and it is related to employees work or job. Workplace stress often stems from negative responsibilities and pressures that do not align with an individual’s skills, knowledge and expectations. There are many causes related to occupational stress as it includes heavy workload, long working hours, job conflicts, and job insecurity and negative relationship with supervisor. Work-related stress symptoms can be categorized as mental as well as psychological, physical, behavioral and social.

In simple words, Job satisfaction is an approach that explains the satisfaction of worker with his/her present job. It is also known as an important method that may be used to motivate the workers at job efficiently. As it is believed “A happy worker is a productive worker.” An industrial worker who feels satisfied with their job is generally regarded as a happy employee or satisfied worker. According to Newstronx and Keith Davis, 2009, “Job satisfaction is the pattern of positive or negative emotions with which workers perceive their work.”

The three main factors that affecting job satisfaction:-1. Personal Factors( Gender, Age, Time on Job , Level and Range of Intelligence , Level of Education, Number of Dependents , Attitude and Personality) 2. Factors Inherent in Job (Skill Required, Nature of Job, Geography, Occupational Status) 3. Factors Controllable by Management: (Opportunities for Advancement, Security, Fringe Benefits, Working Conditions, Co-Workers, Flow of Communication, Responsibility and Supervision Wages)

Review of Literature

The relevant literature and studies are described in following two sections.

A. Studies related to Job satisfaction B. Studies related to Occupational stress

A. Studies related to Job satisfaction

Age and Job Satisfaction

Many studies have been investigated by many investigators to highlight the correlation or relationship between Age and Job Satisfaction. In this context, Fitzmaurice (2012) conducted a research and indicated that satisfaction increased with the age. On the other hand, Issam Ghazzawi (2010), conducted a study and concluded that age has no significant role in determining the level of job satisfaction of an individual.

Gender and Job Satisfaction

Several studies conducted by different researchers have shown the effect of gender on Job Satisfaction .In this context; Crossman and B.A. Zaki (2003) concluded that female employees were more satisfied than their male. On the contrary, Abbas. S.M Shariq (2011) concluded in their study that female employees showed less satisfaction as compared to male respondents in his investigation.

Length of Service and Job Satisfaction

Several studies conducted by different researchers have shown positive and negative relationship between Length of Service and Job Satisfaction.

In this context, Hind, A. (2013) conducted a research and concluded that older workers were more satisfied than the younger workers. There was no difference observed by many psychologists. In this context, Adeyinka Tella et.al (2007), investigated and no difference was observed in the perceived length of service and job satisfaction.

Studies Related To Occupational Stress

Age and Occupational Stress

Several studies have been conducted by many researchers to highlight the relationship between Age and Organizational Stress. In this context, Vimala Thomas, Y. Sai Krishna, K. J. Kishore Kumar (2019), concluded that participants aged between 31-40 years experienced more Occupational Stress than those aged between 21-30 years”. On the contrary, some researchers concluded the studies and find out that younger experienced more occupational stress. In this context, Chandraiah. K, S.C. Agrawal, P. Marimuthu and N. Manoharan in (2003), indicated that young adults and the early middle aged were experiencing more stress due to role overload, role ambiguity and strenuous working conditions compared to late middle aged.

Gender and Occupational Stress

A number of studies were conducted to find out the effect of gender on Occupational Stress. In this context, Jamal Akhtar & A.K.S. Kushwaha (2015) investigated their research and showed that female employees perceive more stress than males. In another studies, it is found that there is no relationship between age and Occupational Stress. In this context, Amineh A. Khaddam, Mohammed A. Abusweilem (2019),concluded that there is no relationship between age and Occupational Stress.

Length of Service and Occupational Stress

Several studies conducted by different researchers have shown positive and negative relationship between Length of Service and Occupational Stress. In this context, Apoorva (2012), indicated that the persons having less experience or short tenure have more occupational stress. There was no difference observed between length of service and occupational stress by many psychologists. In this context, Dr. G. Lokanadha Reddy and Dr. R. Vijaya Anuradha (2013), indicated that male teachers experienced more stress in comparison to female teachers. Also, age and years of experience were not found to influence the level of occupational stress.

Methodology & Design

Variables

Independent Variables

There are three independent variables:

1. Age 2. Gender 3.Length of Service

Dependent Variables

There are two dependent variables:

1. Occupational Stress 2.Job Satisfaction

Design

A 2 × 2 × 3 factorial design consisting of three independent variables are used in the present research. The first independent variable – Age of bank employees is varied at two levels by using about 30 years and about 50 years old. The second independent variable-Gender has been used by taking male and female subjects. The third independent variable- Length of service is varied at three levels i.e. the employees having 5 years, 10 years and 15 years length of service.

Sample

A sample of 240 subjects (bank employees) is taken up from different banks of Meerut city.

Measuring Tools

The following measuring tools have been used to obtain the scores.

1. Occupational Stress Index constructed by Dr. A.P. Singh and Dr. A.K. Shrivastava.

2. Job Satisfaction Scale constructed by Dr. T.R. Sharma and Dr. Amar Singh.

Results

As per research plan, this study was designed to find out the effect of three Independent variables namely Age, Gender and Length of Service on two dependent variables-Occupational Stress and Job Satisfaction. Therefore, this chapter is divided into two parts.

A. Occupational Stress

B. Job Satisfaction

Results related to Occupational Stress

Table-01

Occupational Stress

Summary Table of Analysis of Variance Scores (ANOVA)

**denotes the significance at .01 levels of confidence.

*denotes the significance at .05 levels of confidence.

Main Effects

Age

An inspection of summary table of ANOVA (Table no. 1[F (1,228) =17.47P>.01]) as the F value exceeds the value given in statistical table, has been found to have significant effect on occupational stress. This significant F value enables us to conclude that age factor is influential to affect the occupation stress of the bank employees. Thus, we reject the hypothesis that, “there will be no significant difference in occupational stress of about 30 years and about 50 years bank employees” .

Gender

A close look at table of ANOVA (Table no. 1[F (1,228) =13.89 P>.01]) clearly indicates that exceed the value given in the statistical table. This significant F-ratio indicating that gender factor significantly affects the occupational stress of male and female. So, the hypothesis that, “there is no significant difference between the scores of occupational stress of males and females”, is rejected.

Length of Service

The summary of ANOVA (Table no. 1[F (2,228) =54.66 P>.01]) also reveals that third variable- length of service has been found to have significant F value for occupational stress. It exceeds the critical value at 0.01. It can be noted that variable is significant factor at both levels. It indicates that length of service affects the occupational stress. Thus, the hypothesis that, “There will be no significant difference in the scores of occupational stress of the employees, having 5 years, 10 years and 15 years length of service,” is rejected.

First order Interaction

Age and Gender (A×B)

Along with the main effects of the three independent variables, interaction effects among variables are also computed as shown in the summary table of ANOVA.

An inspection of summary table of ANOVA (Table no. 1[F (1,228) =13.12 P>.01]) clearly reveals that interaction between age and gender is significant as the F value exceeds the value given in statistical table.This significant interaction reveals that effect of age is dependent on gender. Thus, the hypothesis that, “there will be no significant interaction between age and gender of the subjects,” is rejected.

Gender and Length of Service( B×C Interaction)

An observation of summary table of ANOVA for second interaction effects between gender and length of service (B×C) clearly reveals that this interaction is not statistically significant at any acceptable level of confidence (Table no. 1[F (2,228) =1.28 P<.05] ) as it does not exceed the value given in the statistical table. However, this non significant interaction between gender and length of service also indicates that these two independent variables are not dependent on each other. This may also be noted that these two independent variables are not working in a significant way. Thus, the hypothesis that, “there will be no significant interaction between gender and length of service of the subjects”, is accepted.

Age and Length of Service (A×C) Interaction

An inspection of summary table of ANOVA (Table no. 1[F (2,228) =3.24P>.05]) indicates that f value for interaction between age and length of service has been found to have significant effect. Thus, the hypothesis that, “there will be no significant interaction between age and length of service of the subjects,” is rejected.

Second Order Interaction

Age, Gender and Length of Service (A×B×C) Interaction

As far as the second order interaction (age, gender and length of service) is concerned, the f value has yielded significant effect on .01 level of confidence [F (2,228) =11.95 P>.01] as it can be observed in summary table of analysis of variance. Thus, the hypothesis is that, “there will be no significant interaction among age, gender and length of service,” is rejected.

Table-02

Mean table for A×B×C Interact

A1 A2

The lowest and highest means are 89.45 and 153.05 for graph A2B1C3 and A1B1C1 respectively. Thus, it can be stated that about 50 years old females having 15 years of length of service indicate low occupational stress as compared to about 30 years old males having 5 years of length of service. It can also be observed in mean table A×B×C interaction.

Results related to Job Satisfaction

Table-03

Job Satisfaction

Summary Table of Analysis of Variance Scores (ANOVA)

Main Effects

Age

In the present investigation, independent variables- age has been varied at two levels about 30 years and 50 years old subjects. We shall designate this factor as A (Age) and its two levels A1 and A2 .An inspection of summary table of ANOVA (Table no. 3[F (1,228) =22.02 P>.01]) shows that F value exceeds the value given in statistical table. It is found to have significant effect on job satisfaction. This significant F value enables us to conclude that age factor is influential to affect the job satisfaction of the bank employees. Thus, we reject the hypothesis that, “there will be no significant difference in job satisfaction of about 30 years and about 50 years bank employees” .

Gender

The second independent variable for investigation, i.e. gender of the subjects is also varied at two ways by taking males and females. We shall designate it as B and two levels by B1 representing male and B2 representing female. A close look at table of ANOVA (Table no. 3[F (1,228) =14.01 P>.01]) clearly indicates that exceed the value given in the statistical table. This significant F-ratio indicating that gender factor significantly affects the job satisfaction of male and female. So, the hypothesis that, “there is no significant between the scores of job satisfaction of male and female”, is rejected.

Length of Service

We shall designate it as C and three levels by C1 representing to 5 years, C2 representing to 10 years, C3 representing to15 years. The summary of ANOVA (Table no. 3[F (2,228) =78.90 P>.01]) also reveals that third variable- length of service has been found to have significant F value for job satisfaction. It exceeds the critical value at 0.01. It can be noted that variable is significant factor at both levels. It indicates that length of service affects the job satisfaction. Thus, the hypothesis that, “there will be no significant difference in the scores of job satisfaction of the employees, having 5 years, 10 years and 15 years length of service,” is rejected.

First order Interaction

Age and Gender (A×B)

Along with the main effects of the three independent variables, interaction effects among variables are also computed as shown in the summary table of ANOVA.

An inspection of summary table of ANOVA (Table no. 3[F (1,228) =5.44 P>.05] clearly reveals that interaction between age and gender is significant as the F value exceeds the value given in statistical table at .05 level of confidence. This shows that there is significant interaction between age and gender. It may be noted that both factors are interdependent. This can also be noted that the difference between the means of A1 and A2 for the first level of B is significantly different from the difference between A1and A2 for the second level of B. This significant interaction reveals that effect of age is dependent on gender. Thus, the hypothesis that, “there will be no significant interaction between age and gender of the subjects,” is rejected.

Gender and Length of Service (B×C Interaction)

An observation of summary table of ANOVA for second interaction effects between gender and length of service (B×C) clearly reveals that this interaction is not statistically significant at any acceptable level of confidence (Table no.3[F (2,228) =2.459 P<.05]) as it does not exceed the value given in the statistical table. However, this non significant interaction between gender and length of service also indicates that these two independent variables are not dependent on each other. This may also be noted that these two independent variables are not working in a significant way. Thus, the hypothesis that, “there will be no significant interaction between gender and length of service of the subjects”, is accepted.

Age and Length of Service (A×C) Interaction

An inspection of summary table of ANOVA (Table no.3[F (2,228) =10.43 P>.01]) indicates that f value for interaction between age and length of service has been found to have significant effect. Thus, this significant interaction between age and length of service reveals that the difference between the means of C1, C2 and C3 for the first level of A is significantly different from the difference of means of C1, C2 and C3 for the second level of A. Thus, the hypothesis that, “there will be no significant interaction between age and length of service of the subjects,” is rejected.

Second Order Interaction

Age, Gender and Length of Service (A×B×C) Interaction

As far as the second order interaction (age, gender and length of service) is concerned, the f value has yielded significant effect on .01 level of confidence (Table no. 3 [F (2,228) =2.823 P<.05]) as it can be observed in summary table of analysis of variance. Thus, the hypothesis is that, “there will be no significant interaction among age, gender and length of service,” is accepted. Table-04

Mean table for A×B×C Interaction

The lowest and highest means are 119.65 and 162.05 for graph A1B2C3 and A1B1C1 respectively. Thus, it can be stated that about 50 years old females having 10 years of length of service indicate low job satisfaction as compared to about 30 years old males having 5 years of length of service. It can also be observed in mean table A×B×C interaction.

Conclusion

This chapter is concerned with the results and the descriptions of the results for three factor in terms of significant and non significant effects are yielded by employing analysis of variance are as under.

Related to Occupational Stress

1. The effect of age on occupational stress is significant.

2. The effect of gender on occupational stress is significant.

3. The effect of length of on service occupational stress is significant.

4. The interaction between age and gender is significant.

5. The interaction between gender and length of service is non significant.

6. The interaction between age and length of service is significant.

7. The last interaction between age, gender and length of service is also found significant in this study.

Related to Job Satisfaction

1. The effect of age on job satisfaction is significant.

2. The effect of gender on job satisfaction is significant.

3. The effect of length of service on job satisfaction is significant.

4. The interaction between age and gender is significant.

5. The interaction between gender and length of service is non significant.

6. The interaction between age and length of service is significant.

7. The interaction between age, gender and length of service is non-significant in the present context.

Suggestions for further Research

Occupational stress has an impact on job satisfaction as results show that due to heavy workload or negative relationship with colleagues promote dissatisfaction among bank employee. To overcome such types of situations counseling and stress management programs can be promoted which help an employee to feel relief and develops more self- assurance. It is also advisable to the bank employees to avoid unnecessary conditions or concern about the colleagues’ attitude.

References –

1- Brewer, E and Lander, J.M. (2003) The Relationship between Job Stress and Job Satisfaction Among industrial and Technical.

2- Hind, A. (2013). Job Satisfaction among Bank Employees in Eastern Libya. American International Journal of Social Science, 2, 30-44.

3- Jagtap, U.R., & Yadav, P. (2014). Impact of Job Stress on Job Satisfaction at SBI-Indore: With special reference to Non Managerial Employees. Sinhgad Institute of Management and Computer Application, 328-332.

4- Mrs. Caral Lopes, & Ms. Dhara Kachalia, Impact of job stress on employee performance in banking sector, International Journal of Science Technology and Management, Vol.No.5,Issue No.03, March 2016.ISSN 2394-1537

5- Jimmieson, N.L., Terry, D. J., Callan, V.J. (2004). A longitudinal study of employee adaptation to organizational change: The role change- related information and change-related self efficacy. J Occupat Health Psych, 9, 11-27.

6- Reddy, S.J., Reddy, B.V., & Rao, S.D. (2016). A study on axis bank employees job satisfaction levels in Andhra Pradesh. Innovative Journal of Business and Management, 102-110.

7- Ramanthan, N. and Chandra Mohan. S, “Occupational Stress- A Comparative Study of Employees in Public and Private Sector Banks in Tamil Nadu”, International Journal of Innovation and Scientific Research, Vol: 3, No: 1, ISSN: 2351-8014, June 2014.

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